RIndu Puisi

Aku tak pernah berlari meninggalkanmu !
Melangkah menjauhi pun tak pernah terlintas
Aku masih disini…. Aku masih ada…
Namun sebait pun kini tak sempat lagi kubuat

Setiap hari kuhanya bisa berkata pada hati
Besok mungkin dapat kuluangkan waktu lagi
Tuk menulis tentang hati…
Dalam sebentuk puisi

Nyatanya aku tak pernah sempat
Ragaku s’lalu saja terlebih dahulu penat
Sehingga asa dan rasa tak pernah sempat
Dapatkan waktu yang tepat untuk puisi-puisi baru kubuat

Hingga sekali lagi di pagi ini
Kerinduan pada puisi kembali menjadi
Curahan hatiku dalam sebentuk puisi
Semoga esok aku bisa segera kembali

dedicated for someone in my heart.
source : http://www.anggrekbiru.com/page/2/

winter season

listing paragraph

Let us now carefully see the listing paragraph given below.
Last Eid Shopping
I, as usual, enjoyed the last Eid shopping as I visited different markets and bought dresses for myself and the other members of my family. Firstly, I together with my mother went to New Market and bought two attractive dresses for my younger sister. Then we went to Gowsia Market, visited three shops, and bought a very nice dress for my mother. After that, we went to Elephant Road, visited several shops, and bought two Punjabis — one for me and one for my father. Besides, we bought a fine dress for our maid servant. Finally, we went to Eastern Plaza, and purchased some cosmetics for my mother, sister and the maid servant. The last Eid shopping was really a happy experience to me.

5. Classification: To develop a paragraph by the technique of classification, we put a host of ideas or items into a limited number of homogeneous classes. In such a paragraph, the topic sentence clearly and precisely breaks the subject or topic up into more than one part.

Consisting of the same or similar ideas or items. Then the developers describe or explain each of the parts separately and elaborately, and show how the parts relate to the subject and how they relate to each other.

This type of paragraph is developed on such topics as ‘Transports in Bangladesh’, ‘Literary Works’, ‘Films’, and the like. This strategy of developing paragraphs helps us discuss things classwise in detail in a systematic way. Now let us study this classification paragraph:

paragraph developed by Contrast

Now let us study the following paragraph developed by Contrast.
Rural Life and Urban Life
Rural life and urban life have many, common sides, but differences between them are greater. Rural people do not have adequate educational and medical facilities. They do not enjoy the modem facilities. provided by electricity and gas. The village people also have very limited scopes of entertainments. Besides, they face problems with their communication network. On the other hand, the urban people enjoy a lot of educational and medical facilities. They have electricity and gas, and then lead a very comfortable life. The people in towns and cities also have many ways of entertainments such as parks, cinemas, cable televisions, and so forth. Moreover, they enjoy a smooth and easy communication, system. Thus rural life is deprived of modem facilities whereas urban life is as modem as enjoyable.

4. Listing: To develop a paragraph through the listing strategy, we have to describe or state several items, or states, or actions related to a given topic or subject. In other words, in such a paragraph, the aspects of a subject are dealt with one after one by using such transitional words as ‘firstly, secondly, thirdly, finally’, or ‘first, next, after wards, lastly’ and so on.

The technique of listing helps us avoid something looking like a list of items, for instance, a shopping list, a menu, etc, and develop paragraphs in a smooth and effective manner. This technique applies to such topics as ‘Last Eid Shopping’ ‘Black African Nations’ ‘Muslim Countries’, ‘Religions in Bangladesh’ and the like.

paragraph developed by comparison.

Now let us examine the following paragraph developed by comparison.
A Baby and an Old Person

Though a baby and an old person are very different in point of age and experience, they are much similar in respect of physical ability, mental strength and economic condition. A baby is physically immature and depends on the adults around him/her for physical movement. Similarly, an old person may be very weak and depend on others for his/her movement. Again, a baby possesses a little mental strength and can hardly exercise it. Likewise, an old person lacks mental strength and can hardly cope with mental pressure. Finally, a baby has to depend on his/her parents for all financial support. An old person, too, often depends, on. his/her sons and daughters for economic assistance. Thus, a baby and an old person have much in common, though the former has just come to this world and the latter is about to pass away.

3. Contrast: To develop a paragraph by contrast we have to show how two subjects differ from each other. That is, a contrast paragraph’ compares the dissimilar features or qualities that two subjects have. And the topic sentence in such a paragraph indicates how we are comparing the contrasting aspects of two subjects.

This type of paragraph permits two different procedures to be developed:
(a) In a procedure, the dissimilar respects of two subject are compared point by point, that is, one of one subject and one of the other, again one of one subject and one of the other, and so on.
(b) In the second procedure, the comparison of the dissimilar aspects is made subject wise. That is, the aspects related to the first subject are dealt with first, and then the aspects of the second subject.

  • Continue reading
  • Techniques of Development

    To develop paragraphs we can use varied techniques according to the type and nature of paragraphs. Let us now look at the techniques one by one:

    1. Definition: To develop a paragraph through definition, we define, describe, or explain a less familiar or unfamiliar subject by relating it to some familiar subject. Ina paragraph being developed by definition, the topic sentence functions as the basic definition. The subsequent sentences functioning as developers detail, explain, and/or elaborate on the various aspects of the particular definition. And to perform their role the developers can employ the techniques of comparison, contrast and synthesis. The technique of comparison helps show the similarities between the familiar and the unfamiliar subject. On the other hand, the technique of contrast reveals the dissimilarities between the unknown and the known subject. But the technique of synthesis brings together both the similarities and the Basic English Language Skills dissimilarities between the known and the unknown subject, and develops a novel idea or concept. The three techniques can work individually or in combination. Finally, the conclusive sentence of the paragraph usually sums up the salient features of the subject on which the paragraph is being written.

    Here this paragraph (printed just above) is an example of the paragraph developed by the techniques of definition. The technique of definition is generally used for writing paragraphs on such topics as ‘Photosynthesis’, ‘Novels’ ‘Poetry’, ‘Drama’, ‘Triage-Comedy’, and the like. That is, to make clear the meaning of a term, genre, subject, notion, or concept, this technique is exploited.

    2. Comparison: To develop a paragraph by the technique of comparison, we compare the similar characteristics of different subjects and thus describe one subject more elaborately. In such a paragraph, the topic sentence shows how we are comparing the features or qualities of two subjects. To use this technique, we can have two procedures:

    In a procedure, we can compare two subjects point by point. In other words, one aspect related to a subject alternates with an aspect of the other subject.

    In the other procedure, all the qualities of a subject are stated first, and then come all the qualities of the other subject.

    However, we should avoid comparing things in very many ways, because this might cause unavoidable complexities. By using the technique of comparison, paragraphs are developed on such topics as ‘Drama and Novel’, ‘City Life and Village Life’, ‘Paragraphs and Essays’, and the like.

    English Paragraphs

    A paragraph is the basic unit of composition. It can be an independent piece of writing, or part of a composition and so on. A well-written paragraph must have three indispensable elements — topic sentence, developers and terminator. These parts of the paragraph are otherwise known as the beginning, the middle and the conclusion. The capability of exploiting these elements much help the writer develop a paragraph in a well-organized and well-developed way.

    The topic sentence is usually the first sentence in a paragraph. It is the single most important sentence through which the writer tells the reader what s/he is developing in the subsequent sentence excepting the last one in the paragraph.

    The developers consist of the sentence placed between the topic sentence and the last sentence in a paragraph. They develop the topic sentence through elaboration, exemplification, classification and so forth. That is, they detail, expand and support the idea put forward in the topic. The terminator is the last sentence in a well-written paragraph. It logically concludes the ideas developed through the developers of the paragraph.

    All things considered, sentences used in a paragraph must be written in lapidary style. It must be terse, succinct and economical. Do not make any spidery writing and try to avoid flowery use of words. Wordiness and long-winded sentences must be avoided. A standard sentence must be within 10 to 12 words.


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